Thursday, May 21, 2020

Profile of Saladin, Hero of Islam

Saladin, the sultan of Egypt and Syria, watched as his men finally breached the walls of Jerusalem and poured into the city full of European Crusaders and their followers. Eighty-eight years earlier, when the Christians had taken the city, they massacred the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. Raymond of Aguilers boasted, In the Temple and the porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins. Saladin, however, was both more merciful and more chivalrous that Europes knights; when he recaptured the city, he ordered his men to spare the Christian non-combatants of Jerusalem. At a time when the nobility of Europe believed that they held a monopoly on chivalry, and on Gods favor, the great Muslim ruler Saladin proved himself more compassionate and courtly than his Christian opponents. More than 800 years later, he is remembered with respect in the west, and revered in the Islamic world. Early Life In 1138, a baby boy named Yusuf was born to a Kurdish family of Armenian descent living in Tikrit, Iraq. The babys father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, served as the castellan of Tikrit under the Seljuk administrator Bihruz; there is no record of the boys mothers name or identity. The boy who would become Saladin seemed to have been born under a bad star. At the time of his birth, his hot-blooded uncle Shirkuh killed the commander of the castle guard over a woman, and Bihruz banished the entire family from the city in disgrace. The babys name comes from the Prophet Joseph, an unlucky figure, whose half-brothers sold him into slavery. After their expulsion from Tikrit, the family moved to the Silk Road trading city of Mosul. There, Najm ad-Din Ayyub and Shirkuh served Imad ad-Din Zengi, the famous anti-Crusader ruler and founder of the Zengid Dynasty. Later, Saladin would spend his adolescence in Damascus, Syria, one of the great cities of the Islamic world. The boy reportedly was physically slight, studious and quiet. Saladin Goes to War After attending a military training academy, the 26-year-old Saladin accompanied his uncle Shirkuh on an expedition to restore Fatimid power in Egypt in 1163. Shirkuh successfully reinstalled the Fatimid vizier, Shawar, who then demanded that Shirkuhs troops withdraw. Shirkuh refused; in the ensuing fight, Shawar allied himself with European Crusaders, but Shirkuh, ably assisted by Saladin, managed to defeat the Egyptian and European armies at Bilbays. Shirkuh then withdrew the main body of his army from Egypt, in accordance with a peace treaty. (Amalric and the Crusaders also withdrew, since the ruler of Syria had attacked the Crusader States in Palestine during their absence.) In 1167, Shirkuh and Saladin once again invaded, intent on deposing Shawar. Once again, Shawar called on Amalric for assistance. Shirkuh withdrew from his base in Alexander, leaving Saladin and a small force to defend the city. Besieged, Saladin managed to protect the city and provide for its citizens despite his uncles refusal to attack the surrounding Crusader/Egyptian army from behind. After paying restitution, Saladin left the city to the Crusaders. The following year, Amalric betrayed Shawar and attacked Egypt in his own name, slaughtering the people of Bilbays. He then marched on Cairo. Shirkuh jumped into the fray once again, recruiting the reluctant Saladin to come with him. The 1168 campaign proved decisive; Amalric withdrew from Egypt when he heard that Shirkuh was approaching, but Shirkuh entered Cairo and took control of the city early in 1169. Saladin arrested the vizier Shawar, and Shirkuh had him executed. Taking Egypt Nur al-Din appointed Shirkuh as the new vizier of Egypt. A short time later, however, Shirkuh died after a feast, and Saladin succeeded his uncle as vizier on March 26, 1169. Nur al-Din hoped that together, they could crush the Crusader States that lay between Egypt and Syria. Saladin spent the first two years of his rule consolidating control over Egypt. After uncovering an assassination plot against him among the black Fatimid troops, he disbanded the African units (50,000 troops) and relied instead upon Syrian soldiers. Saladin also brought members of his family into his government, including his father. Although Nur al-Din knew and trusted Saladins father, he viewed this ambitious young vizier with increasing distrust. Meanwhile, Saladin attacked the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, crushed the city of Gaza, and captured the Crusader castle at Eilat as well as the key town of Ayla in 1170. In 1171, he began to march on the famous castle-city of Karak, where he was supposed to join Nur al-Din in attacking the strategic Crusader fortress but withdrew when his father passed away back in Cairo. Nur al-Din was furious, rightly suspecting that Saladins loyalty to him was in question. Saladin abolished the Fatimid caliphate, taking power over Egypt in his own name as the founder of the Ayubbid Dynasty in 1171, and reimposing Sunni religious worship instead of Fatimid-style Shiism. Capture of Syria In 1173 and 1174, Saladin pushed his borders west into what is now Libya, and southeast as far as Yemen. He also cut back payments to Nur al-Din, his nominal ruler. Frustrated, Nur al-Din decided to invade Egypt and install a more loyal underling as vizier, but he suddenly died early in 1174. Saladin immediately capitalized on Nur al-Dins death by marching to Damascus and taking control of Syria. The Arab and Kurdish citizens of Syria reportedly welcomed him joyfully into their cities. However, the ruler of Aleppo held out and refused to acknowledge Saladin as his sultan. Instead, he appealed to Rashid ad-Din, head of the Assassins, to kill Saladin. Thirteen Assassins stole into Saladins camp, but they were detected and killed. Aleppo refused to accept Ayubbid rule until 1183, nonetheless. Fighting the Assassins In 1175, Saladin declared himself king (malik), and the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad confirmed him as the sultan of Egypt and Syria. Saladin thwarted another Assassin attack, waking and catching the knifemans hand as he stabbed down towards the half-asleep sultan. After this second, and much closer, threat to his life, Saladin became so wary of assassination that he had chalk powder spread around his tent during military campaigns so that any stray footprints would be visible. In August of 1176, Saladin decided to lay siege to the Assassins mountain strongholds. One night during this campaign, he awoke to find a poisoned dagger beside his bed. Stuck to the dagger was a note promising that he would be killed if he did not withdraw. Deciding that discretion was the better part of valor, Saladin not only lifted his siege, but also offered an alliance to the Assassins (in part, to prevent the Crusaders from making their own alliance with them). Attacking Palestine In 1177, the Crusaders broke their truce with Saladin, raiding toward Damascus. Saladin, who was in Cairo at the time, marched with an army of 26,000 into Palestine, taking the city of Ascalon and getting as far as the gates of Jerusalem in November. On November 25, the Crusaders under King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem (son of Amalric) surprised Saladin and some of his officers while the vast bulk of their troops were out raiding, however. The European force of just 375 was able to route Saladins men; the sultan narrowly escaped, riding a camel all the way back to Egypt. Undaunted by his embarrassing retreat, Saladin attacked the Crusader city of Homs in the spring of 1178. His army also captured the city of Hama; a frustrated Saladin ordered the beheading of the European knights captured there. The following spring King Baldwin launched what he thought was a surprise retaliatory attack on Syria. Saladin knew he was coming, though, and the Crusaders were soundly thrashed by Ayubbid forces in April of 1179. A few months later, Saladin took the Knights Templar fortress of Chastellet, capturing many famous knights. By the spring of 1180, he was in position to launch a serious attack on the Kingdom of Jerusalem, so King Baldwin sued for peace. Conquest of Iraq In May of 1182, Saladin took half of the Egyptian army and left that part of his kingdom for the last time. His truce with the Zengid dynasty that ruled Mesopotamia expired in September, and Saladin resolved to seize that region. The emir of the Jazira region in northern Mesopotamia invited Saladin to take suzerainty over that area, making his task easier. One by one, other major cities fell: Edessa, Saruj, ar-Raqqah, Karkesiya, and Nusaybin. Saladin repealed taxes in the newly-conquered areas, making him very popular with the local residents. He then moved toward his former hometown of Mosul. However, Saladin was distracted by a chance to finally capture Aleppo, the key to northern Syria. He made a deal with the emir, allowing him to take everything he could carry as he left the city, and paying the emir for what was left behind. With Aleppo finally in his pocket, Saladin once more turned to Mosul. He laid siege to it on November 10, 1182, but was unable to capture the city. Finally, in March of 1186, he made peace with the citys defense forces. March Toward Jerusalem Saladin decided that the time was ripe to take on the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In September of 1182, he marched into Christian-held lands across the River Jordan, picking off small numbers of knights along the Nablus road. The Crusaders mustered their largest army ever, but it was still smaller than Saladins, so they merely harassed the Muslim army as it moved toward Ayn Jalut. Finally, Raynald of Chatillon sparked open fighting when he threatened to attack the holy cities of Medina and Mecca. Saladin responded by besieging Raynalds castle, Karak, in 1183 and 1184. Raynald retaliated by attacking pilgrims making the hajj, murdering them and stealing their goods in 1185. Saladin countered by building a navy that attacked Beirut. Despite all of these distractions, Saladin was making gains on his ultimate goal, which was the capture of Jerusalem. By July of 1187, most of the territory was under his control. The Crusader kings decided to mount a last, desperate attack to try and drive Saladin from the kingdom. Battle of Hattin On July 4, 1187, the army of Saladin clashed with the combined army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, under Guy of Lusignan, and the Kingdom of Tripoli, under King Raymond III. It was a smashing victory for Saladin and the Ayubbid army, which nearly wiped out the European knights and captured Raynald of Chatillon and Guy of Lusignan. Saladin personally beheaded Raynald, who had tortured and murdered Muslim pilgrims and also had cursed the Prophet Muhammad. Guy of Lusignan believed that he would be killed next, but Saladin reassured him by saying, It is not the want of kings to kill kings, but that man transgressed all bounds and therefore did I treat his thus. Saladins merciful treatment of the King Consort of Jerusalem helped cement his reputation in the west as a chivalrous warrior. On October 2, 1187, the city of Jerusalem surrendered to Saladins army after a siege. As noted above, Saladin protected the Christian civilians of the city. Although he demanded a low ransom for each Christian, those who could not afford to pay were also allowed to leave the city rather than being enslaved. Low-ranking Christian knights and foot-soldiers were sold into slavery, however. Saladin invited Jewish people to return to Jerusalem once more. They had been murdered or driven out by the Christians eighty years before, but the people of Ashkelon responded, sending a contingent to resettle in the holy city. The Third Crusade Christian Europe was horrified by the news that Jerusalem had fallen back under Muslim control. Europe soon launched the Third Crusade, led by Richard I of England (better known as Richard the Lionheart). In 1189, Richards forces attacked Acre, in what is now northern Israel, and massacred 3,000 Muslim men, women, and children who had been taken prisoner. In retaliation, Saladin executed every Christian soldier his troops encountered for the next two weeks. Richards army defeated Saladins at Arsuf on September 7, 1191. Richard then moved toward Ascalon, but Saladin ordered the city emptied and destroyed. As the dismayed Richard directed his army to march away, Saladins force fell upon them, killing or capturing most of them. Richard would continue to try to retake Jerusalem, but he had only 50 knights and 2,000 foot-soldiers remaining, so he would never succeed. Saladin and Richard the Lionheart grew to respect one another as worthy adversaries. Famously, when Richards horse was killed at Arsuf, Saladin sent him a replacement mount. In 1192, the two agreed to the Treaty of Ramla, which provided that the Muslims would retain control of Jerusalem, but Christian pilgrims would have access to the city. The Crusader Kingdoms were also reduced to a thin sliver of land along the Mediterranean coast. Saladin had prevailed over the Third Crusade. Death of Saladin Richard the Lionheart left the Holy Land early in 1193. A short time later, on March 4, 1193, Saladin died of an unknown fever in his capital at Damascus. Knowing that his time was short, Saladin had donated all of his wealth to the poor  and had no money left even for a funeral. He was buried in a simple mausoleum outside of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Sources Lyons, Malcolm Cameron and D.E.P. Jackson. Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.Nicolle, David and Peter Dennis. Saladin: The Background, Strategies, Tactics and Battlefield Experiences of the Greatest Commanders of History, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2011.Reston, James Jr. Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, New York: Random House, 2002.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Using the Strengths-Based Model for Social Work Practice...

Utilizing strengths based perspective with clients enables social workers to focus on the client and family strengths and abilities instead of focusing on the client and family’s problems, bad behaviors and pathologies. The strengths based perspective applies six principles that guide the social worker professional in assisting client’s with the strengths based model; we all have areas of strength, but sometimes it takes an unbiased third party to notice and help others clearly see what they are capable of achieving, even in the midst of their crisis. Every Individual, Group, Family and Community Has Strengths Weick (1992) states â€Å"every person has an inherent power that may be characterized as life force, transformational capacity,†¦show more content†¦18). Trauma and Abuse, Illness and Struggle May Be Injurious, but They May also be sources of challenge and opportunity Many people come to social workers with a victim mentality, feeling helpless and without a future based on their past. They have been discouraged, beat down and made to feel broken. Being a victim of abuse, trauma, toxic relationships or a victim of assault are all unfortunate circumstances, but they can be overcome. It may seem like a challenge, but it is possible with assistance and God. As social workers we are to provide client’s who have experienced repeated trauma with support and resources to assist them in their journey to a hopeful life. Painful experiences seem to get the best of us at times, but focusing on the client’s ability to survive these horrific events can give the client just the push they need to see that they are a survivor. Helping the client to realize their own strengths and skills used to overcome their trauma, instead of focusing on the trauma itself, is a powerful way to help clients achieve a positive outcome. Kisthardt (1992) states â€Å"intervention will work best when there is â€Å"an orientation to, and appreciation of, the uniqueness, skills, interests, hopes, and desires of each consumer, rather than a categorical litany of deficits† (p. 60-61). Kaplan and Girard (1994) state â€Å"people will be motivated to change and grow when their strengths areShow MoreRelatedArgumentative Essay : Generalist Social Work Practice1192 Words   |  5 PagesGeneralist Social Work Practice Dating back to the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century two women who impacted the field of social work and its beginning were Jane Addams and Mary Richmond. 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The Major Causes of Motorcycle Accidents Free Essays

Nothing compares to the thrill and excitement of riding a motorcycle for me. The high excitement is unfortunately accompanied by danger too. It’s true that motorcyclists are more prone to die in accidents than those in cars. We will write a custom essay sample on The Major Causes of Motorcycle Accidents or any similar topic only for you Order Now Riding a motorcycle is not like riding a â€Å"bicycle† there are many precautions to take before handling a machine like this, riding a motorcycle requires self-control and is a lot responsibility. Many people are hurt severely and killed every day by riding a motorcycle; whether the person riding is at fault or not. Riding a motorcycle is not like riding a â€Å"bicycle† there’s many precautions to take before handling a machine like this, riding a motorcycle requires self-control and is a lot responsibility. Many people are hurt severely and killed every day by riding a motorcycle; whether the person riding is at fault or not. Riding a motorcycle is not like riding a â€Å"bicycle† there are many precautions to take before handling a machine like this, riding a motorcycle requires self-control and is a lot responsibility. Many people are hurt severely and killed every day by riding a motorcycle; whether the person riding is at fault or not. An alarming increase in the number of motorcycle accidents has been recorded in recent years, this is why it is important to study and analyze the causal factors of motorcycle accidents in our country. Causal factors remain bad road conditions, speed problems, riding skills, presence of alcohol and undivided roadways. Motorcyclists usually suffer in case of bad road conditions like potholes, debris, and uneven places. Statistics shows that about 70% of the collisions are a result of this. Research indicates that the major cause of motorcycle accidents remains the failure of other motorists to recognize motorcyclists in heavy traffic or at night. High speed is a causal factor of accidents too. Speed displaces the alignment of the motorcycle, as it causes the front end to ‘wobble’. Hence, the motorcyclist loses control and collides against any stationary object or moving vehicle. Most single motorcycle accidents involved hitting a fixed object or speeding when road onditions are bad. Many states post warning signs at road construction projects telling motorcyclists to proceed with caution. Studies conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration states that speeding, aggressive driving, and driver inattention are leading causes of motorcycle accidents. Negligence on the part of the motorcyclist also leads to accidents or collisions. So does improper breaking or turning. Bad weather remains a problem or causal factor, though its influence is small in comparison. Also, According to the National Highway Safety Transportation Administration, motorcyclists who drink alcohol then drive are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents than automobile drivers. In 2007, 28 percent of motorcyclists who died had blood alcohol levels of . 08 g/DL or higher, and a study done in L. A. found that alcohol was a factor in almost half of the accidents. Motorcyclists need to pay attention when they’re riding. They further should avoid using alcohol before climbing on their bike. There are many causes of motorcycle accidents but many are avoidable. Motorcyclists should be thoroughly familiar with their bike, due to a high number of accidents among riders who had been using a bike less than five months. The transportation safety board suggests riders take an education course to familiarize themselves with motorcycle rules and regulations. Though many states do not require helmets, both studies said wearing helmets reduces the severity of head injuries, and may even save a rider’s life. It is obvious that bikes are more dangerous than cars therefore we need to take more precautions and be more careful. How to cite The Major Causes of Motorcycle Accidents, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Once Upon A Time, There Were Two People Who Went To An Essays

Once upon a time, there were two people who went to an interview for only one job position at the same company. The first person attended a prestigious and highly academic university, had years of work experience in the field and, in the mind of the employer, had the potential to make a positive impact on the companys performance. The second person was just starting out in the field and seemed to lack the ambition that was visible in his opponent. Who was chosen for the job? you ask. Well, if the story took place before 1964, the answer would be obvious. However, with the somewhat recent adoption of the social policy known as affirmative action, the answer becomes unclear. After the United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in 1964, it became apparent that certain business traditions, such as seniority status and aptitude tests, prevented total equality in employment. Then President, Lyndon B. Johnson, decided something needed to be done to remedy these flaws. On September 24, 1965, he issued Executive Order #11246 at Howard University that required federal contractors to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed . . . without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin (Civil Rights). When Lyndon Banes Johnson signed that order, he enacted one of the most discriminating pieces of legislature since the Jim Crow Laws were passed. Affirmative action was created in an effort to help minorities leap the discriminative barriers that were ever so present when the bill was first enacted, in 1965. At this time, the country was in the wake of nationwide civil-rights demonstrations, and racial tension was at its peak. Most of the corporate executive and managerial positions were occupied by white males, who controlled the hiring and firing of employees. The U.S. government, in 1965, believed that these employers were discriminating against minorities and believed that there was no better time than the present to bring about change. When the Civil Rights Law passed, minorities, especially African-Americans, believed that they should receive retribution for the years of discrimination they endured. The government responded by passing laws to aide them in attaining better employment as reprieve for the previous two hundred years of suffering their race endured at the hands of the white man. To many, this made sense. Supporters of affirmative action asked, why not let the government help them get better jobs? After all, the white man was responsible for their suffering. While this may all be true, there is another question to be asked. Are we truly responsible for the years of persecution that the African Americans were submitted to? The answer to the question is yes and no. It is true that the white man is partly responsible for the suppression of the African- American race. However, the individual white male is not. It is just as unfair and suppressive to hold many white males responsible for past persecution now as it was to discriminate against many African-Americans in the generations before. Why should an honest, hard-working, open minded, white male be suppressed, today, for past injustice? Affirmative action accepts and condones the idea of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. Do two wrongs make a right? I think mother taught us better than that. Affirmative action supporters make one large assumption when defending the policy. They assume that minority groups want help. This, however, may not always be the case. My experience with minorities has led me to believe that they fought to attain equality, not special treatment. To them, the acceptance of special treatment is an admittance of inferiority. They ask, Why cant I become successful on my own? Why do I need laws to help me get a job? These African Americans want to be treated as equals, not as incompetents. In a statement released in 1981 by the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Jack P. Hartog, who directed the project, said: Only if discrimination were nothing more than the misguided acts of a few prejudiced individuals would affirmative action plans be reverse discrimination. Only if todays society were operating fairly toward minorities and women would measures that take race, sex, and national origin into account be preferential treatment. Only if discrimination were securely placed in a well-distant past would affirmative action be an unneeded and drastic remedy. What the commission failed to realize was that there are thousands of white males who are not discriminating yet are being punished because of those who do. The Northern Natural Gas Company of Omaha, Nebraska, was forced by the government to release sixty-five white male

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Graduate Admissions Essay Dos and Donts

Graduate Admissions Essay Dos and Don'ts Nearly all applicants to graduate school are required to submit one or several admissions essays, sometimes referred to as personal statements. This component of the graduate admissions application permits the admissions committee to see beyond the statistics to see you as a person apart from your GPA and GRE scores. This is your chance to stand out so make sure that your admissions essay truly reflects you. An essay that is truthful, appealing, and motivating can increase your chances of acceptance but a poor admissions essay can eliminate opportunities. How do you write the most appealing and effective admissions essay possible? Admissions Essay Dos Prepare an outline and create a draft.Answer all the questions asked.Make sure your essay has a theme or a thesis.Provide evidence to support your claims.Make your introduction unique.Write clearly and make sure it is easy to read.Be honest, confident, and be yourself.Be interesting and positive.Make sure your essay is organized, coherent, and concise.Write about yourself and use examples from your own life experiences.Use a mixture of long and short sentences.Discuss your future goals.Mention any hobbies, past jobs, community service, or research experience.Speak in the first person (I†¦).Mention weaknesses without making excuses.Discuss why youre interested in the school and/or program.Show, don’t tell (Use examples to demonstrate your abilities).Ask for help.Proofread and revise your statement at least 3 times.Have others proofread your essay. Admissions Essay Donts: Have any grammar or spelling errors. (Proofread!)Be wordy or use jargon (don’t try to impress the readers by using big words).Swear or use slang.Digress or be repetitive.Be boring (ask someone to read your essay).Generalize.Include cliches or gimmicks.Be comical (a little humor is okay but remember it can be misconstrued).Be defensive or arrogant.Complain.Preach.Focus on other individuals.Discuss politics or religion.Make lists of accomplishments, awards, skills, or personal qualities (Show, don’t tell).Write a term paper or an autobiography.Summarize your resume.Include information already cited on the application.Forget to proofread.

Monday, March 2, 2020

A Basic Lesson in Latin Prepositions

A Basic Lesson in Latin Prepositions In his 19th century book on prepositions in Latin, Samuel Butler writes: Prepositions are particles or fragments of words prefixed to nouns or pronouns, and denoting their relations to other objects in point of locality, cause or effect. They are found in combination with all the parts of speech except interjections....A Praxis on the Latin Prepositions, by Samuel Butler (1823). In Latin, prepositions appear attached to other parts of speech (something Butler mentions, but is not of concern here) and separately, in phrases with nouns or pronouns prepositional phrases. While they can be longer, many common Latin prepositions are from one to six letters long. The two vowels that serve as single letter prepositions are a and e. Where Butler says the prepositions help denote relations with other object in point of locality, cause or effect, you might want to think of prepositional phrases as having the force of adverbs. Gildersleeve calls them local adverbs. Position of the Preposition Some languages have postpositions, which means they come after, but prepositions come before the noun, with or without its modifier. Ad beate vivendumFor living happily has a preposition before an adverb before a gerund (noun). Latin prepositions sometimes separate the adjective from the noun, as in the graduation honor summa cum laude, where summa highest is an adjective modifying the noun laude praise, and separated from it by the preposition cum with. Since Latin is a language with flexible word order, you may occasionally see a Latin preposition following its noun. Cum follows a personal pronoun and may follow a relative pronoun. Cum quo or quo cumWith whom De may follow some pronouns, as well. Gildersleeve says that instead of using two prepositions with one noun, as we do when we say its over and above our duty the noun will be repeated with each of the two prepositions (its over our duty and beyond our duty) or one of the prepositions be turned into an adverb. Sometimes prepositions, reminding us of their close relationship with adverbs, appear alone without a noun, as adverbs. The Case of Nouns in Prepositional Phrases In Latin, if you have a noun, you also have a number and case. In a Latin prepositional phrase, the number of the noun can be either singular or plural. Prepositions almost always take nouns in either the accusative or ablative case. A few prepositions can take either case, although the meaning should be at least subtly different depending on the case of the noun. Gildersleeve summarizes the significance of the case by saying the accusative is used for whither? while the ablative is used for whence? and where? Here are a few of the common Latin prepositions divided into two columns depending on whether they take the accusative or ablative case. Accusative Ablative Trans (across, over) Ab/A (off, of from) Ad (to, at) De (from, ofabout) Ante (before) Ex/E (out of, from) Per (through) Cum (with) Post (after) Sine (without) Those single vowel prepositions can not appear before a word starting with a vowel. The usual form is the one that ends in a consonant. Ab can have other forms, like abs. There are subtle distinctions between several of these prepositions. If you are interested, please read Butlers work.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Street art in Berlin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Street art in Berlin - Essay Example At the time, graffiti artists among other citizens took to the wall on both sides using the wall to criticize the erection of the wall with every artist striving to communicate specific messages. Such messages as â€Å"Death to tyrants†, â€Å"God Ble$$† and â€Å"Concrete makes you happy,† conveyed the opinions of the people regarding the separation of Germany into two. While street arts were illegal at the time, the graffiti artists among others enhanced the artistic criticism of the society at the time thereby contributing to the demolition of the wall. Germans did not like the wall since it split their country simply to serve political interests. West Germans used their side of the wall to express their disgust with the wall and so did the Eastern Germans. Streets arts, as exhibited on the Berlin wall, became an integral culture in Germany. In the 1970s, streets artists sought to make Berlin their Mecca. They devised new mechanisms of developing systematic gr affiti with paint cans being among the most favorable. Key among the targeted platform for the streets artists were the communist property (Schürer 101). The defaced such property in a defiant attitude. The artists expressed their displeasure with the prevailing political developments while expressing their desired developments. The areas around the wall of Berlin consisted of dilapidated streets, abandoned buildings and piles of rubles, which the street artists took over splashing defiantly yet creative criticism of the society.