Monday, August 24, 2020
Old stories is a perplexing term, whose definition has worked up blended musings and philosophies in the folkloristsÃ¢â¬â¢ world. There is no single definition that is all around acknowledged since various folkloristsÃ¢â¬in the past and currentÃ¢â¬have various contemplations. Be that as it may, these shifted considerations are interlinked with Alan DundeÃ¢â¬â¢s rundown of old stories, which involves various sorts that are hard to order (Oring, 1989).Advertising We will compose a custom report test on Introduction to Folklore: Folklore Genres and Analysis explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More accordingly, fluctuated definitions have been created to help comprehend the class better. Somewhat, the two words that offer ascent to the general term Ã¢â¬Å"folkloreÃ¢â¬ impact the folkloristsÃ¢â¬â¢ work in thinking of a definition. The implications related with the words Ã¢â¬Å"folkÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"loreÃ¢â¬ ought to be conceived in the general meaning of the w ord. As per Newell (1890), old stories is Ã¢â¬Å"oral convention and conviction passed on from age to age without the utilization of writingÃ¢â¬ (Oring, 1989, p. 7). At first, old stories alluded to stabilities, for example, legends that empowered the continuation of a training after some time. The utilization of stories and convictions was related with a folklore and thinking of an eloquent qualification among folklore and legends was principal. Be that as it may, this reason became feeble when NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s redefinition of legends surfaced. Folklorists connect fables to working class in light of the fact that the crude and less special individuals will in general worth their social practices and qualities, which are given starting with one age then onto the next, contrasted and cultivated individuals. Characteristic and profound features of legends have been disintegrated among the urban socialized individuals. The lower class despite everything esteem their regular and profo und lives that have not been mutilated by urbanization. A run of the mill model is the present world we are living in, which because of innovative change and advancement has put more spotlight on improving life instead of harping on keeping up the genuineness of old stories. A visit to networks that have not been contaminated by westernization and its consequences shows that these social orders are still weaved into their old practices. I in this manner accept that in spite of the differed meanings of fables, it is slanted to a specific gathering sharing a specific Ã¢â¬Å"ancient factorÃ¢â¬ .Advertising Looking for report on social investigations? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Folklore never kicks the bucket; it by one way or another figures out how to remember despite the fact that not in its unique state as long as it flourishes somehow or another. Notwithstanding, it is contended that its worth lies in its associatio n with basic every day encounters of the individuals regardless of the change. Fables ought not only exude from foundations. At the point when fables develops after some time and is changed to fit into the contemporary society, at that point it loses its conventional and old perspectives that are key in characterizing legends. A run of the mill model is in FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s (1985) writing that shows Cape Bretoners as individuals, who have been quickly extending their employment exercises to suit the evolving times. The historical backdrop of Cape Breton as a modern culture goes back to the 1820s. During this time, mining may have been the conventional financial movement for the individuals around the coal mineshafts. Nonetheless, the popularity for work when human progress saturated brought about drawing individuals from their average occupations as ranchers and fishers (folklife). Under such conditions, the folklife of the individuals was cleared away by the tyrannical coal organizati ons prompting a difference in conviction frameworks and lifestyle. Likewise, the tasks of these organizations were administered and organized in a way that gutted the common articulations and folklife of the individuals. The articulations showed by the coal excavators Ã¢â¬Å"voting for work applicants, joining co-agents and building unionsÃ¢â¬ are not fables. These exercises were not willful articulations. The individuals were constrained by unforgiving treatment from the coal organizations to think of systems that would defend their human rights (Frank, 1985, p.203). Legends are intended to pass on explicit messages/rehearses that are applicable to the general public in which they are created after some time without themselves getting modified. For instance in rustic Cape Breton, tunes and stories were profoundly valued and esteemed in the area. In this locale, there was a high pace of migration and ethnic ties were remarkable. American anthropologists contend that ethnic ties ( society) bound individuals of a similar network together. It was hard for an untouchable to infiltrate into the society social orders. Old stories areas are a type of social character. In this manner, individuals with a similar foundation direction share comparative stories, delimit their people society and they have a comparative comprehension of issues.Advertising We will compose a custom report test on Introduction to Folklore: Folklore Genres and Analysis explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The congregation was a significant social organization for the Cape Bretoners. Regardless of the way that the congregation doesn't meet all requirements to be legends, the notions, perspectives and conviction frameworks of the individuals towards the congregation are fables (Frank, 1985, p. 204). Just 23 people couldn't express the religion they were partnered to thus, a sign that the individuals had solid confidence and faith in the congregation. Notwithstanding peopleÃ¢â ¬â¢s solid confidence in the congregation, the defined and reported exercises by the ministers were not part of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s legends since they were not a genuine impression of the followersÃ¢â¬â¢ musings and thoughts. Rather, the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s exercises were planned for inferring some type of advantage as the congregation forced its conventions on the individuals. In his composition, Frank plainly exhibits this through a fables class (joke), Ã¢â¬Å"I needed to take as much time as necessary I saw him and go to chapel twice on Sunday to hold my positionÃ¢â¬ (Frank, 1985, p. 208). This statement is fables and yet shows how the congregation, the establishment of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence didn't fit the bill to be old stories. The statement speaks to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition towards the congregation. The greater part of old stories classes are mostly utilized for diversion and amusement like stories, melodies, jokes and moves. The antiquated trademark they hav e makes them curious to the eye, in this manner making a sentiment of energy. In Cape Breton, there was a blend of music and tunes as demonstrated by Frank (1985). Notwithstanding, music becomes fables just in the event that it is harmonious with the meaning of unwritten customs. Cape Breton people group is a delineation of the pretended by music in making agreement regardless of its assorted variety. The melodies sung had a typical topic shared by the coal diggers: Ã¢â¬Å"that they didn't have a slave-vivacious soulÃ¢â¬ (Frank, 1985, p. 206). The above conversation on understanding old stories shows that old stories shapes a reason for social personality. Culture is significant in light of the fact that it gives an individual a feeling of having a place. As per Ã¢â¬Å"The Intangible Heritage MessengerÃ¢â¬ (2003), there is a solid connection between impalpable social legacy and old stories. UNESCO characterizes immaterial social legacy as Ã¢â¬Å"the rehearses, portrayals, arti culations, information, skillsÃ¢â¬as well as instruments, items, antiquities and social spaces related therewithÃ¢â¬that networks, gatherings and, now and again, people perceive as a major aspect of their social heritageÃ¢â¬ (What is Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2003, p.1).Advertising Searching for report on social investigations? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More Reasons examined in this paper structure a reason for clarifying why UNESCO utilizes the expression Ã¢â¬Å"intangible social legacy (ICH)Ã¢â¬ . In any case, the spaces under the impalpable social legacy are unique frameworks that various societies invest heavily in independent of their history. A few societies are related with cultivating while in others, angling is the job. Along these lines, UNESCO recognizes the differing idea of societies and subsequently is set on guaranteeing that each cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s elusive legacy is all around ensured. Old stories then again delimits the class and particularly when change is evident. Controlled sorts are not total legends and all the more so in the event that they are not a vital part of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. UNESCO doesn't put limitations on ICH. Consequently, every immaterial area that characterizes culture, independent of its tendency and resulting control, is a piece of the ICH. A model is the old cultivating society contrasted and t he contemporary cultivating society. The present utilization of laborers and machines for business creation has upset the conventional act of cultivating, which was principal in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s every day lives since they exclusively depended on it. While present day cultivating falls under ICH, it isn't old stories. Moreover, writing shows that the spaces recorded by UNESCO are not a comprehensive rundown of old stories thus, it is misdirecting to utilize it as an aggregate term. Legends is a progressively mind boggling term and utilizing it would require the show to dive further into the past to get each one of those kinds that characterize antiquated individuals and their practices with the least conceivable change in correlation with UNESCOÃ¢â¬â¢s ICH (What is Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2003). References Frank, D. (1985). Custom and Culture in the Cape Breton Mining Community in the Early Twentieth Century. In K. Donovan (ed.), Cape Breton at 200 (pp. 203-221). Sydney: Unive rsity College of Cape Breton Press. Newell, W. (1890). The Study of Folklore.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Have you at any point considered how the food youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to eat was readied? I realize I once in a while do, and a significant number of us never pay any brain to what precisely is on our plate. David Foster WallaceÃ¢â¬â¢s paper will cause you to ask yourself a couple of inquiries with respect to meat utilization. His piece discusses the debate behind murdering lobsters and questions peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s general perspectives on that issue, making his crowd consider morality.After perusing Ã¢â¬Å"Consider the LobsterÃ¢â¬ I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help yet think that it is so absurd to express that lobsters donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel torment, and much increasingly crazy to utilize such articulation so as to make individuals imagine that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not really harming the lobsters. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s said that lobstersÃ¢â¬â¢ cerebrums donÃ¢â¬â¢t let them feel torment, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what makes the slaughtering of them alright for many individuals (308). I accept that each animal is equipped for encountering probably a type of physical distress. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think about creepy crawlies, however all creatures appear to feel torment similarly as we, people, do.To me, the best verification that lobsters do really feel torment is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s contention that they act Ã¢â¬Å"very much as you or I would act in the event that we were dove into bubbling waterÃ¢â¬ (310, Wallace). Individuals notice the lobsterÃ¢â¬â¢s panicky response to being tossed into the amazingly hot pot and periodically choose to leave the room. I imagine that thusly, they recognize that the creature is enduring and choose to endure it with the goal that it feels less like theyÃ¢â¬â¢re a piece of the procedure. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t figure I could ever have the option to murder a lobster.IÃ¢â¬â¢ve consistently been delicate to creatures being exposed to torment; I even have issues with attempting to go angling at whatever point my uncle asks me to. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t take a gander at the fish suffoca ting and dominating the spot. In this way, IÃ¢â¬â¢m totally persuaded that I could never take a section in the curse of torment on creatures. Not straightforwardly in any event. However, when I consider it, I do take some part in it, by devouring meat. Does the way that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t by and by slaughter my own chickens or turkeys truly make me a superior individual than the individuals who set up their own lobster?Just in light of the fact that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t do it without anyone else's help shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t propose IÃ¢â¬â¢m less liable. I would, obviously, never butcher any creature, however I purchase the meat in any case, despite the fact that I know precisely how itÃ¢â¬â¢s done and what sort of mental and physical torment those creatures experience. What's more, truly, I have really thought about it, yet I don't have anything to state with all due respect. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve viewed numerous narratives uncovering the horrendous manners by which creatures are butchered. Furthermor e, sufficiently sure, subsequent to watching that, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t eat meat for a couple weeks.But once the recordings began gradually blurring endlessly in my memory and werenÃ¢â¬â¢t as clear, I got directly once more into the meat dietary pattern. The stun I encountered after first observing the narrative has gradually passed and permitted me to push it to the rear of my psyche. There are a great deal of times when IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to take a chomp of meat and those horrendous pictures experience my psyche. When that happens I just push them out and compel myself to consider something else.I feel like that is somewhat two-faced of me, since I consider myself an individual who might never hurt a creature, yet as a general rule, I decide to overlook that I am, truth be told, hurting them somehow or another. Be that as it may, IÃ¢â¬â¢m practically sure that if I somehow happened to watch those recordings ever day or face the genuine procedure and watch it with my own eyes, IÃ¢â¬â ¢d have a somewhat tough time disposing of the stun and would become veggie lover immediately. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the way that IÃ¢â¬â¢m not continually helped to remember it, that makes me not consider it much.The creator talks about different manners by which lobsters are murdered. Some of them are just astonishing. He makes reference to that a few cooks Ã¢â¬Å"put the lobster in chilly saltwater and afterward gradually bring it up to full boilÃ¢â¬ (311). How could that be an increasingly compassionate approach to set up a lobster? To me, it appears such procedure just exacerbates the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s enduring and as the creator says: Ã¢â¬Å"lobsters bubbled gradually frequently show an entire reward set of abhorrent, convulsionlike responses that is you donÃ¢â¬â¢t find in normal boilingÃ¢â¬ (311).Wallace additionally discusses cooks who jab wholes in the lobsters and afterward microwave them alive or detach the hooks and tail. It makes me wonder: are those cooks remorseless indiv iduals? Or on the other hand simply individuals who need to carry out their responsibilities? In the event that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re simply carrying out their responsibilities in any case, how would they be able to not have any desire to attempt to do it as least agonizingly as could reasonably be expected? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult for me to see how might somebody be fit for microwaving a creature alive. What's more, itÃ¢â¬â¢s shocking to me. Something extremely commendable about this article is how much data was remembered for it.The perusing is made out of all that you may ever need to think about lobsters; where they originated from, to what extent theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been near, how theyÃ¢â¬â¢re arranged and expended and the contention behind it. Wallace has clearly invested a gigantic measure of energy taking a shot at this piece. When truth that I discovered exceptionally fascinating was that Ã¢â¬Å"up until at some point during the 1800s, lobster was actually low-class food, eaten disti nctly by poor people and institutionalizedÃ¢â¬ (302). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s astonishing to think how with time, the way of life develops and adjusts totally new standards. Taking care of lobsters to detainees used to be illegal and these days itÃ¢â¬â¢s basically viewed as a delicacy.It just makes me wonder what will individuals consider it to be in an additional hundred years, and how much will our discernment have changed. Perusing David Foster WallaceÃ¢â¬â¢s paper on the Maine Lobster Festival was shockingly getting a handle on to me. His unexpected difference in subject, from depicting how the celebration is arranged and celebrated, to examining the morals of murdering and devouring our food made his composing extremely intriguing and enthralling. His composing was extremely viable and made me think about my decisions, which I likely wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have done something else.
Saturday, July 18, 2020
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Thursday, May 21, 2020
Saladin, the sultan of Egypt and Syria, watched as his men finally breached the walls of Jerusalem and poured into the city full of European Crusaders and their followers. Eighty-eight years earlier, when the Christians had taken the city, they massacred the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. Raymond of Aguilers boasted, In the Temple and the porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins. Saladin, however, was both more merciful and more chivalrous that Europes knights; when he recaptured the city, he ordered his men to spare the Christian non-combatants of Jerusalem. At a time when the nobility of Europe believed that they held a monopoly on chivalry, and on Gods favor, the great Muslim ruler Saladin proved himself more compassionate and courtly than his Christian opponents. More than 800 years later, he is remembered with respect in the west, and revered in the Islamic world. Early Life In 1138, a baby boy named Yusuf was born to a Kurdish family of Armenian descent living in Tikrit, Iraq. The babys father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, served as the castellan of Tikrit under the Seljuk administrator Bihruz; there is no record of the boys mothers name or identity. The boy who would become Saladin seemed to have been born under a bad star. At the time of his birth, his hot-blooded uncle Shirkuh killed the commander of the castle guard over a woman, and Bihruz banished the entire family from the city in disgrace. The babys name comes from the Prophet Joseph, an unlucky figure, whose half-brothers sold him into slavery. After their expulsion from Tikrit, the family moved to the Silk Road trading city of Mosul. There, Najm ad-Din Ayyub and Shirkuh served Imad ad-Din Zengi, the famous anti-Crusader ruler and founder of the Zengid Dynasty. Later, Saladin would spend his adolescence in Damascus, Syria, one of the great cities of the Islamic world. The boy reportedly was physically slight, studious and quiet. Saladin Goes to War After attending a military training academy, the 26-year-old Saladin accompanied his uncle Shirkuh on an expedition to restore Fatimid power in Egypt in 1163. Shirkuh successfully reinstalled the Fatimid vizier, Shawar, who then demanded that Shirkuhs troops withdraw. Shirkuh refused; in the ensuing fight, Shawar allied himself with European Crusaders, but Shirkuh, ably assisted by Saladin, managed to defeat the Egyptian and European armies at Bilbays. Shirkuh then withdrew the main body of his army from Egypt, in accordance with a peace treaty. (Amalric and the Crusaders also withdrew, since the ruler of Syria had attacked the Crusader States in Palestine during their absence.) In 1167, Shirkuh and Saladin once again invaded, intent on deposing Shawar. Once again, Shawar called on Amalric for assistance. Shirkuh withdrew from his base in Alexander, leaving Saladin and a small force to defend the city. Besieged, Saladin managed to protect the city and provide for its citizens despite his uncles refusal to attack the surrounding Crusader/Egyptian army from behind. After paying restitution, Saladin left the city to the Crusaders. The following year, Amalric betrayed Shawar and attacked Egypt in his own name, slaughtering the people of Bilbays. He then marched on Cairo. Shirkuh jumped into the fray once again, recruiting the reluctant Saladin to come with him. The 1168 campaign proved decisive; Amalric withdrew from Egypt when he heard that Shirkuh was approaching, but Shirkuh entered Cairo and took control of the city early in 1169. Saladin arrested the vizier Shawar, and Shirkuh had him executed. Taking Egypt Nur al-Din appointed Shirkuh as the new vizier of Egypt. A short time later, however, Shirkuh died after a feast, and Saladin succeeded his uncle as vizier on March 26, 1169. Nur al-Din hoped that together, they could crush the Crusader States that lay between Egypt and Syria. Saladin spent the first two years of his rule consolidating control over Egypt. After uncovering an assassination plot against him among the black Fatimid troops, he disbanded the African units (50,000 troops) and relied instead upon Syrian soldiers. Saladin also brought members of his family into his government, including his father. Although Nur al-Din knew and trusted Saladins father, he viewed this ambitious young vizier with increasing distrust. Meanwhile, Saladin attacked the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, crushed the city of Gaza, and captured the Crusader castle at Eilat as well as the key town of Ayla in 1170. In 1171, he began to march on the famous castle-city of Karak, where he was supposed to join Nur al-Din in attacking the strategic Crusader fortress but withdrew when his father passed away back in Cairo. Nur al-Din was furious, rightly suspecting that Saladins loyalty to him was in question. Saladin abolished the Fatimid caliphate, taking power over Egypt in his own name as the founder of the Ayubbid Dynasty in 1171, and reimposing Sunni religious worship instead of Fatimid-style Shiism. Capture of Syria In 1173 and 1174, Saladin pushed his borders west into what is now Libya, and southeast as far as Yemen. He also cut back payments to Nur al-Din, his nominal ruler. Frustrated, Nur al-Din decided to invade Egypt and install a more loyal underling as vizier, but he suddenly died early in 1174. Saladin immediately capitalized on Nur al-Dins death by marching to Damascus and taking control of Syria. The Arab and Kurdish citizens of Syria reportedly welcomed him joyfully into their cities. However, the ruler of Aleppo held out and refused to acknowledge Saladin as his sultan. Instead, he appealed to Rashid ad-Din, head of the Assassins, to kill Saladin. Thirteen Assassins stole into Saladins camp, but they were detected and killed. Aleppo refused to accept Ayubbid rule until 1183, nonetheless. Fighting the Assassins In 1175, Saladin declared himself king (malik), and the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad confirmed him as the sultan of Egypt and Syria. Saladin thwarted another Assassin attack, waking and catching the knifemans hand as he stabbed down towards the half-asleep sultan. After this second, and much closer, threat to his life, Saladin became so wary of assassination that he had chalk powder spread around his tent during military campaigns so that any stray footprints would be visible. In August of 1176, Saladin decided to lay siege to the Assassins mountain strongholds. One night during this campaign, he awoke to find a poisoned dagger beside his bed. Stuck to the dagger was a note promising that he would be killed if he did not withdraw. Deciding that discretion was the better part of valor, Saladin not only lifted his siege, but also offered an alliance to the Assassins (in part, to prevent the Crusaders from making their own alliance with them). Attacking Palestine In 1177, the Crusaders broke their truce with Saladin, raiding toward Damascus. Saladin, who was in Cairo at the time, marched with an army of 26,000 into Palestine, taking the city of Ascalon and getting as far as the gates of Jerusalem in November. On November 25, the Crusaders under King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem (son of Amalric) surprised Saladin and some of his officers while the vast bulk of their troops were out raiding, however. The European force of just 375 was able to route Saladins men; the sultan narrowly escaped, riding a camel all the way back to Egypt. Undaunted by his embarrassing retreat, Saladin attacked the Crusader city of Homs in the spring of 1178. His army also captured the city of Hama; a frustrated Saladin ordered the beheading of the European knights captured there. The following spring King Baldwin launched what he thought was a surprise retaliatory attack on Syria. Saladin knew he was coming, though, and the Crusaders were soundly thrashed by Ayubbid forces in April of 1179. A few months later, Saladin took the Knights Templar fortress of Chastellet, capturing many famous knights. By the spring of 1180, he was in position to launch a serious attack on the Kingdom of Jerusalem, so King Baldwin sued for peace. Conquest of Iraq In May of 1182, Saladin took half of the Egyptian army and left that part of his kingdom for the last time. His truce with the Zengid dynasty that ruled Mesopotamia expired in September, and Saladin resolved to seize that region. The emir of the Jazira region in northern Mesopotamia invited Saladin to take suzerainty over that area, making his task easier. One by one, other major cities fell: Edessa, Saruj, ar-Raqqah, Karkesiya, and Nusaybin. Saladin repealed taxes in the newly-conquered areas, making him very popular with the local residents. He then moved toward his former hometown of Mosul. However, Saladin was distracted by a chance to finally capture Aleppo, the key to northern Syria. He made a deal with the emir, allowing him to take everything he could carry as he left the city, and paying the emir for what was left behind. With Aleppo finally in his pocket, Saladin once more turned to Mosul. He laid siege to it on November 10, 1182, but was unable to capture the city. Finally, in March of 1186, he made peace with the citys defense forces. March Toward Jerusalem Saladin decided that the time was ripe to take on the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In September of 1182, he marched into Christian-held lands across the River Jordan, picking off small numbers of knights along the Nablus road. The Crusaders mustered their largest army ever, but it was still smaller than Saladins, so they merely harassed the Muslim army as it moved toward Ayn Jalut. Finally, Raynald of Chatillon sparked open fighting when he threatened to attack the holy cities of Medina and Mecca. Saladin responded by besieging Raynalds castle, Karak, in 1183 and 1184. Raynald retaliated by attacking pilgrims making the hajj, murdering them and stealing their goods in 1185. Saladin countered by building a navy that attacked Beirut. Despite all of these distractions, Saladin was making gains on his ultimate goal, which was the capture of Jerusalem. By July of 1187, most of the territory was under his control. The Crusader kings decided to mount a last, desperate attack to try and drive Saladin from the kingdom. Battle of Hattin On July 4, 1187, the army of Saladin clashed with the combined army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, under Guy of Lusignan, and the Kingdom of Tripoli, under King Raymond III. It was a smashing victory for Saladin and the Ayubbid army, which nearly wiped out the European knights and captured Raynald of Chatillon and Guy of Lusignan. Saladin personally beheaded Raynald, who had tortured and murdered Muslim pilgrims and also had cursed the Prophet Muhammad. Guy of Lusignan believed that he would be killed next, but Saladin reassured him by saying, It is not the want of kings to kill kings, but that man transgressed all bounds and therefore did I treat his thus. Saladins merciful treatment of the King Consort of Jerusalem helped cement his reputation in the west as a chivalrous warrior. On October 2, 1187, the city of Jerusalem surrendered to Saladins army after a siege. As noted above, Saladin protected the Christian civilians of the city. Although he demanded a low ransom for each Christian, those who could not afford to pay were also allowed to leave the city rather than being enslaved. Low-ranking Christian knights and foot-soldiers were sold into slavery, however. Saladin invited Jewish people to return to Jerusalem once more. They had been murdered or driven out by the Christians eighty years before, but the people of Ashkelon responded, sending a contingent to resettle in the holy city. The Third Crusade Christian Europe was horrified by the news that Jerusalem had fallen back under Muslim control. Europe soon launched the Third Crusade, led by Richard I of England (better known as Richard the Lionheart). In 1189, Richards forces attacked Acre, in what is now northern Israel, and massacred 3,000 Muslim men, women, and children who had been taken prisoner. In retaliation, Saladin executed every Christian soldier his troops encountered for the next two weeks. Richards army defeated Saladins at Arsuf on September 7, 1191. Richard then moved toward Ascalon, but Saladin ordered the city emptied and destroyed. As the dismayed Richard directed his army to march away, Saladins force fell upon them, killing or capturing most of them. Richard would continue to try to retake Jerusalem, but he had only 50 knights and 2,000 foot-soldiers remaining, so he would never succeed. Saladin and Richard the Lionheart grew to respect one another as worthy adversaries. Famously, when Richards horse was killed at Arsuf, Saladin sent him a replacement mount. In 1192, the two agreed to the Treaty of Ramla, which provided that the Muslims would retain control of Jerusalem, but Christian pilgrims would have access to the city. The Crusader Kingdoms were also reduced to a thin sliver of land along the Mediterranean coast. Saladin had prevailed over the Third Crusade. Death of Saladin Richard the Lionheart left the Holy Land early in 1193. A short time later, on March 4, 1193, Saladin died of an unknown fever in his capital at Damascus. Knowing that his time was short, Saladin had donated all of his wealth to the poorÃ and had no money left even for a funeral. He was buried in a simple mausoleum outside of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Sources Lyons, Malcolm Cameron and D.E.P. Jackson. Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.Nicolle, David and Peter Dennis. Saladin: The Background, Strategies, Tactics and Battlefield Experiences of the Greatest Commanders of History, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2011.Reston, James Jr. Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, New York: Random House, 2002.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Utilizing strengths based perspective with clients enables social workers to focus on the client and family strengths and abilities instead of focusing on the client and familyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, bad behaviors and pathologies. The strengths based perspective applies six principles that guide the social worker professional in assisting clientÃ¢â¬â¢s with the strengths based model; we all have areas of strength, but sometimes it takes an unbiased third party to notice and help others clearly see what they are capable of achieving, even in the midst of their crisis. Every Individual, Group, Family and Community Has Strengths Weick (1992) states Ã¢â¬Å"every person has an inherent power that may be characterized as life force, transformational capacity,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦18). Trauma and Abuse, Illness and Struggle May Be Injurious, but They May also be sources of challenge and opportunity Many people come to social workers with a victim mentality, feeling helpless and without a future based on their past. They have been discouraged, beat down and made to feel broken. Being a victim of abuse, trauma, toxic relationships or a victim of assault are all unfortunate circumstances, but they can be overcome. It may seem like a challenge, but it is possible with assistance and God. As social workers we are to provide clientÃ¢â¬â¢s who have experienced repeated trauma with support and resources to assist them in their journey to a hopeful life. Painful experiences seem to get the best of us at times, but focusing on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to survive these horrific events can give the client just the push they need to see that they are a survivor. Helping the client to realize their own strengths and skills used to overcome their trauma, instead of focusing on the trauma itself, is a powerful way to help clients achieve a positive outcome. Kisthardt (1992) states Ã¢â¬Å"intervention will work best when there is Ã¢â¬Å"an orientation to, and appreciation of, the uniqueness, skills, interests, hopes, and desires of each consumer, rather than a categorical litany of deficitsÃ¢â¬ (p. 60-61). Kaplan and Girard (1994) state Ã¢â¬Å"people will be motivated to change and grow when their strengths areShow MoreRelatedArgumentative Essay : Generalist Social Work Practice1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGeneralist Social Work Practice Dating back to the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century two women who impacted the field of social work and its beginning were Jane Addams and Mary Richmond. These two ladies pioneered something that later became one of the most influential evidence based practices that has helped to bring social justice and social support to communities, individuals, and groups. The area of social work later developed the generalist practice model toRead MoreCognitive Theory And Ego Psychology With Young Domestic Violence Victims1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfrom birth. Originally, in psychoanalytic theory, Freud believed that the ego was Ã¢â¬Å"derived from the need to reconcile drives within the constraints of social livingÃ¢â¬ (Hutchison, 2015, p. 132). Now, ego psychologists view the ego as being present from the time of birth. In comparison to cognitive theory, ego psychologists believe that there are developmental stages in which the ego goes through. 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The skills approach describes leadership from the skills perspective. Notedly, things that you can get training on and develop with practice. This approachRead MoreSocial Theories Essay1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTask 5: Compare two models of assessment, planning and coordination practice for working with disabled, older people, or a specific group of people. STRENGTH-BASED MODEL The strength based approach is a concept that firmly adheres to the belief that people or groups of people have existing competencies. It is an empowering approach that focuses on the individuals capabilities rather than their disabilities. People are generally seen as able to learn new skills, involved in discovery, have theirRead MoreSocial Perspectives on Juvenile Delinquency Essay903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfrom the family values that their parents grew up with and tried to pass along to them but there are many loop holes in the generations of yesterday and today. Although, it is not easy to find the true connection between the practices of early childhood development and the social development better known as the recklessness stages of life. Many children fall victim to their environment and end up being a product of the life they see outside their doorstep. There are many wraparound programs that haveRead MoreThe Ecological Systems Approach Is Encouraging And Facilitating The De velopment Of Positive Emotional And Affiliation Supports1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheir social service agency. An underlying principle of social work is the pursuit of social justice and the use of systems theory is congruent with this value as it highlights systemic inequalities. I will consequently understand that this family has to maneuver between complex and at times conflicting systems. Thompson (2014) highlights the issue that much of the discrimination and marginalisation that individuals face is generally a result of social circumstances. He would agree that social interactionRead MoreMy Goals As A Social Worker Practitioner1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe constructed nature of reality and the need for collaborative relationships between client and social worker/therapist. Social workers that use postmodern approach examine socio cultural issues such as how client problems and beliefs become socially constructed, the need for empowerment of marginalized clients, the politic al nature of therapy, and a need for social justice. As a healthcare social worker working with multicultural population it is important to understand how the culture play aRead MoreTreatment Models Chosen For Comparison1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Treatment Models Chosen for Comparison 1. Narrative Therapy the role of the therapist, views of people and their problems, and the approach for helping. Narrative therapy is a way to look at a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life story and their struggles from an outside looking in approach. The problems become separate from the individual. Narrative therapy helps the client examine their life story from a strengths perspective. Instead of focusing on the problems the worker helps the client identify their strengthsRead MoreThe Theories And Interventions That Can Be Applied For The Srs s Cps Program1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn considering this case and within the social work profession, there are many theories and interventions that can be applied to the SRSÃ¢â¬â¢s CPS program including: contingency, conflict resolution, organizational, systems, and empowerment theories. These theories do not operate alone, instead they are combined with one another. The conflict resolution theoretical approach will be utilized through the task-centered model with evidence of NASWÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Ethics, because this is specific to this case.
Nothing compares to the thrill and excitement of riding a motorcycle for me. The high excitement is unfortunately accompanied by danger too. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s true that motorcyclists are more prone to die in accidents than those in cars. We will write a custom essay sample on The Major Causes of Motorcycle Accidents or any similar topic only for you Order Now Riding a motorcycle is not like riding a Ã¢â¬Å"bicycleÃ¢â¬ there are many precautions to take before handling a machine like this, riding a motorcycle requires self-control and is a lot responsibility. Many people are hurt severely and killed every day by riding a motorcycle; whether the person riding is at fault or not. Riding a motorcycle is not like riding a Ã¢â¬Å"bicycleÃ¢â¬ thereÃ¢â¬â¢s many precautions to take before handling a machine like this, riding a motorcycle requires self-control and is a lot responsibility. Many people are hurt severely and killed every day by riding a motorcycle; whether the person riding is at fault or not. Riding a motorcycle is not like riding a Ã¢â¬Å"bicycleÃ¢â¬ there are many precautions to take before handling a machine like this, riding a motorcycle requires self-control and is a lot responsibility. Many people are hurt severely and killed every day by riding a motorcycle; whether the person riding is at fault or not. An alarming increase in the number of motorcycle accidents has been recorded in recent years, this is why it is important to study and analyze the causal factors of motorcycle accidents in our country. Causal factors remain bad road conditions, speed problems, riding skills, presence of alcohol and undivided roadways. Motorcyclists usually suffer in case of bad road conditions like potholes, debris, and uneven places. Statistics shows that about 70% of the collisions are a result of this. Research indicates that the major cause of motorcycle accidents remains the failure of other motorists to recognize motorcyclists in heavy traffic or at night. High speed is a causal factor of accidents too. Speed displaces the alignment of the motorcycle, as it causes the front end to Ã¢â¬ËwobbleÃ¢â¬â¢. Hence, the motorcyclist loses control and collides against any stationary object or moving vehicle. Most single motorcycle accidents involved hitting a fixed object or speeding when road onditions are bad. Many states post warning signs at road construction projects telling motorcyclists to proceed with caution. Studies conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration states that speeding, aggressive driving, and driver inattention are leading causes of motorcycle accidents. Negligence on the part of the motorcyclist also leads to accidents or collisions. So does improper breaking or turning. Bad weather remains a problem or causal factor, though its influence is small in comparison. Also, According to the National Highway Safety Transportation Administration, motorcyclists who drink alcohol then drive are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents than automobile drivers. In 2007, 28 percent of motorcyclists who died had blood alcohol levels of . 08 g/DL or higher, and a study done in L. A. found that alcohol was a factor in almost half of the accidents. Motorcyclists need to pay attention when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re riding. They further should avoid using alcohol before climbing on their bike. There are many causes of motorcycle accidents but many are avoidable. Motorcyclists should be thoroughly familiar with their bike, due to a high number of accidents among riders who had been using a bike less than five months. The transportation safety board suggests riders take an education course to familiarize themselves with motorcycle rules and regulations. Though many states do not require helmets, both studies said wearing helmets reduces the severity of head injuries, and may even save a riderÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is obvious that bikes are more dangerous than cars therefore we need to take more precautions and be more careful. How to cite The Major Causes of Motorcycle Accidents, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Once upon a time, there were two people who went to an interview for only one job position at the same company. The first person attended a prestigious and highly academic university, had years of work experience in the field and, in the mind of the employer, had the potential to make a positive impact on the companys performance. The second person was just starting out in the field and seemed to lack the ambition that was visible in his opponent. Who was chosen for the job? you ask. Well, if the story took place before 1964, the answer would be obvious. However, with the somewhat recent adoption of the social policy known as affirmative action, the answer becomes unclear. After the United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in 1964, it became apparent that certain business traditions, such as seniority status and aptitude tests, prevented total equality in employment. Then President, Lyndon B. Johnson, decided something needed to be done to remedy these flaws. On September 24, 1965, he issued Executive Order #11246 at Howard University that required federal contractors to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed . . . without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin (Civil Rights). When Lyndon Banes Johnson signed that order, he enacted one of the most discriminating pieces of legislature since the Jim Crow Laws were passed. Affirmative action was created in an effort to help minorities leap the discriminative barriers that were ever so present when the bill was first enacted, in 1965. At this time, the country was in the wake of nationwide civil-rights demonstrations, and racial tension was at its peak. Most of the corporate executive and managerial positions were occupied by white males, who controlled the hiring and firing of employees. The U.S. government, in 1965, believed that these employers were discriminating against minorities and believed that there was no better time than the present to bring about change. When the Civil Rights Law passed, minorities, especially African-Americans, believed that they should receive retribution for the years of discrimination they endured. The government responded by passing laws to aide them in attaining better employment as reprieve for the previous two hundred years of suffering their race endured at the hands of the white man. To many, this made sense. Supporters of affirmative action asked, why not let the government help them get better jobs? After all, the white man was responsible for their suffering. While this may all be true, there is another question to be asked. Are we truly responsible for the years of persecution that the African Americans were submitted to? The answer to the question is yes and no. It is true that the white man is partly responsible for the suppression of the African- American race. However, the individual white male is not. It is just as unfair and suppressive to hold many white males responsible for past persecution now as it was to discriminate against many African-Americans in the generations before. Why should an honest, hard-working, open minded, white male be suppressed, today, for past injustice? Affirmative action accepts and condones the idea of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. Do two wrongs make a right? I think mother taught us better than that. Affirmative action supporters make one large assumption when defending the policy. They assume that minority groups want help. This, however, may not always be the case. My experience with minorities has led me to believe that they fought to attain equality, not special treatment. To them, the acceptance of special treatment is an admittance of inferiority. They ask, Why cant I become successful on my own? Why do I need laws to help me get a job? These African Americans want to be treated as equals, not as incompetents. In a statement released in 1981 by the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Jack P. Hartog, who directed the project, said: Only if discrimination were nothing more than the misguided acts of a few prejudiced individuals would affirmative action plans be reverse discrimination. Only if todays society were operating fairly toward minorities and women would measures that take race, sex, and national origin into account be preferential treatment. Only if discrimination were securely placed in a well-distant past would affirmative action be an unneeded and drastic remedy. What the commission failed to realize was that there are thousands of white males who are not discriminating yet are being punished because of those who do. The Northern Natural Gas Company of Omaha, Nebraska, was forced by the government to release sixty-five white male